What Is Autism?
To date, children’s autism is seen as a common developmental disorder. That is, it is not really a disease, but it is a serious violation of mental development. A child with autism spectrum disorder (ADS) needs special attention of doctors, educators, psychologists and, of course, parents.
How To Diagnose Autism?
There are several types of autism spectrum disorders. According to the international classification of diseases ICD-10, four types are distinguished:
1) Children’s autism (autistic disorder, infantile autism, infantile psychosis, Kanner’s syndrome);
2) Atypical autism;
3) Rett syndrome;
4) Asperger syndrome, autistic psychopathy.
Recently, all autistic disorders began to be combined under the general abbreviation of ADS - autism spectrum disorder.
What Are The Symptoms of Canner’s Syndrome?
1) impossibility to establish full contact with people from the beginning of life;
2) extreme isolation from the outside world;
3) ignoring external and internal stimuli, until they become painful;
4) inadequate use of the communicative function of speech;
5) absence or insufficiency of eye contact;
6) fear of changes in the environment;
7) immediate and delayed echolalia (uncontrolled automatic repetition of words and phrases after other people);
8) stereotyped and impulsive behavior and manipulative games;
9) development delay.
What Are The Symptoms Of Asperger’s Syndrome?
Many of the symptoms are similar to Kanner’s syndrome: communicative disorders and a stereotyped range of interests, a weak reaction to external stimuli. The following attributes are added:
1) Contrasting desires and representations;
2) Often - the ability to an unusual, non-standard understanding of oneself and others;
3) Saved or even well-developed logical thinking with unstable attention;
4) Delay of speech and cognitive development, as a rule, is absent;
5) Speech - peculiar in melody, rhythm and tempo;
6) A rejected, diffused view, a scant facial expression.
Symptoms Of Rett Syndrome
It appears at the age of 8-30 months without any external causes. This is the most serious violation among the ADS.
1) It appears against the background of normal motor development;
2) Gradually lost already acquired skills, including speech;
3) Violent movements of “washing type” in the hands;
4) Loss of ability to hold objects, dystonia, muscle atrophies, kyphosis, scoliosis and etc.
Despite the progressive disease and total disintegration of all spheres of life, the child usually retains emotional adequacy and affection.
Symptoms Of Atypical Autism
A disorder similar to Kanner’s syndrome, but at least one of the mandatory diagnostic criteria is absent. Often one or another sign of impaired development manifests itself in a child after the age of 3 years.
Which Doctor Can Diagnose A Child Autism?
According to the International Classification of Diseases, autistic disorders are included in the section “Mental and behavioral disorders”, therefore the leading role in the diagnosis and formation of a treatment-corrective program belongs to a psychiatrist.
If the clinical picture of the child’s condition is not clear enough, the psychiatrist diagnoses “Autistic behavior”. This means: we have little information, but the behavior of the child is very similar in symptoms to autism. This diagnosis requires further clarification.
What Are The Differences Of A Child With Autism?
In its most general form, autism is characterized by a delay in development and reluctance to contact other people. It is important to understand that this disorder has many manifestations: in the development of motor skills, speech, attention, perception. A child with autism can be recognized by such particular signs:
The child does not seek contact with other people, does not react to them, as if he does not notice;
He often makes the same repetitive movements: shakes his hands, bounces, performs complex rituals (repetitive actions);
The circle of his interests is limited, it is difficult for him to get carried away with something new;
The behavior of the child is often destructive: it is aggressive, can scream, cause damage to itself, etc.